Side effects - Scientific articles

Scientific articles and expert's books

Aetna InteliHealth.

Potential Dangers

"(...) The following have been rarely reported : Nerve or vertebral disc damage — Caused by prolonged postures, sometimes involving the legsEye damage and blurred vision, including worsening of glaucoma — Caused by increased eye pressure with headstandsStroke or blood vessel blockage — Caused by decreased blood flow to the brain or other body parts from postures.

There is a case report of a woman who presented with pneumothorax (potentially dangerous air around the lung) caused by a yoga-breathing technique called Kapalabhati pranayama. There is another report of a teen-age girl who died of obstructed breathing associated with mouth-to-mouth yoga (in which one person breathes into another person's mouth using yoga breathing techniques).

However, a long-acting barbiturate (which can cause decreased breathing) may have been partially at fault. Chronic cheilitis (inflammation of the lips) and persistent reflux have been reported in yoga instructors with unclear relationship to this modality.

People with disc disease, fragile or atherosclerotic neck arteries, a risk of blood clots, extremely high or low blood pressure, glaucoma, retinal detachment, ear problems, severe osteoporosis or cervical spondylitis should avoid some yoga poses. Certain yoga breathing techniques should be avoided in people with heart or lung disease.

Some experts advise caution in people with a history of psychotic disorders (such as schizophrenia), because there is a risk of worsening symptoms, although this has not been clearly shown in studies."

Baskaran M, Raman K, Ramani KK, Roy J, Vijaya L, Badrinath SS. (2006). Intraocular pressure changes and ocular biometry during Sirsasana (headstand posture) in yoga practitioners. Ophthalmology. 2006 Aug;113(8):1327-32. Epub Jun 27.[PubMed]
Bertschinger DR, Mendrinos E, Dosso A. (2007). Yoga can be dangerous-glaucomatous visual field defect worsening due to postural yoga. Br J Ophthalmol, Oct;91(10):1413-4 * [MEDLINE]

Corrigan, G. E. (1969). Fatal air embolism after Yoga breathing exercices. Journal of the American Medical Association, 8 december, 210(10);1923.*
Del Pe. (2006). Hidden dangers of meditation and yoga. Jaico Publishing. ( (*

Dominguez, Richard. (1982). A surgeon’s warning: Don’t do these stretches. Executive Fitness, 29 May , 13(11):2-3. *

Duval EL, Van Coster R, Verstraeten K. (1998). Acute traumatic stroke: a case of bow hunter's stroke in a child. European Journal Emergency Medecine, Jun, 5(2):259-63. Department of Paediatrics, University of Ghent, Belgium.* [PubMed]
Eliaz, Isaac, M.D., M.S., L.Ac. (2008). Children and Yoga. 21 August.

Fong, K.Y., Cheung, R.T. Yu, Y.L. Lai, C.W. and Chang, C.M. (1993). Basilar artery occlusion following yoga exercise: A case report. Clin Exp Neurol (Australia), 30:104-109.*
Gallardo MJ, Aggarwal N, Cavanagh HD, Whitson JT. (2006). Progression of glaucoma associated with the Sirsasana (headstand) yoga posture. Adv Ther, Nov-Dec;23(6):921-5.* [PubMed]

Hanus SH, Homer TD, Harter DH. (1977). Vertebral artery occlusion complicating yoga exercises. Arch Neurol., Sep;34(9):574-5.* [PubMed]

"Vertebral artery occlusion developed in a young adult shortly after he had performed neck manipulations during yoga movements. Yoga exercises are a rare cause of acute medullary or cerebellar infarction."

Ikemi, Y., Ishikawa, H. Goyeche, J. R. and Sasaki, Y. (1978).“Positive” and “negative” aspects of the “altered states of consciousness” induced by autogenic training, Zen and yoga. Psychother Psychosom (Switzerland), 30(3-4):170-178
Injuries from Yoga and contraindications. (2005). International Association of Yoga Therapist. 30 p. [Texte complet]

Johnson DB, Tierney MJ, Sadighi, PJ. (2004). Kapalabhati pranayama: breath of fire or cause of pneumothorax? Chest. May; 125(5):1951-2. (Comments in Chest, 2005, May;127(5):1863.)*

Kashyap, AS, Anand, KP & Kashyap, S. (2007). Complications of yoga. Emergency Medicine Journal, 24(3): 231. * [PubMed]
Katz, Steven. (2003). Rebuttal to a surgeon’s warnings. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, no. 13: 43-44.*
Kennedy, R.B. (1976). Self-Induced Depersonalization Syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133(11): 1326-1328. [Am J Psychiatry] [Commentaires]

Kugler, J. (1972). Neurologische Storungen nach Yogaubungen. Neurologic disorders following yoga exercises. Med Klin. (West Germany), 15 Sep, 67(37):1195. *[En Allemand]
Lu, Jessica S. & Pierre, Joseph M. (2007). Psychotic Episode Associated With Bikram Yoga. Am J Psychiatry, 164 : 1761, November. [Texte complet]

Machander, A.R. (1982). Comments on the increase of intrathoracic pressure in the practice of pranayama. Jógová Cvicení, pp. 65-70. * [In Czechoslovakian.]

Margo, C. E., Rowda, J. and Barletta, J. (1992). Bilateral conjunctival varix thromboses associated with habitual headstanding. American Journal of Ophthalmology, Jun 15;113(6):726-7.* [PubMed]

Mattio, T. G., T. Nishida, and M. M. Minieka. (1992). Lotus neuropathy: Report of a case. Neurology, 42:1636.*[PubMed]
Mikkonen J, Pedersen P & McCarthy PW. (2008). A survey of musculoskeletal injury among Ashtanga Vinyasa yoga practitioners. International Journal of Yoga Therapy, 18: 59–64.*

Moulinjeune (sans date, probablement dans les années 1960). Les véritables dangers du Yoga. Conférence polycopiée par la F.N.P.Y.
Nath, Samir. (1998). Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Buddhism. Vol. 1. Sarup & Sons. New Delhi.

Naveen, KV, Teiles, Shirley. (2003). Swami Vivekananda Yoga Research Foundation. Yoga and Psychosis : Risks and Therapeutic Potential. Journal of Indian Psychology. Vol. 21 (1).

“There is a strong interest in the correlation between yoga (especially meditation) and psychosis. Some reports have described : (1) appearance of psychotic symptoms for the first time after meditation, (2) precipitation of acute psychotic episodes in those with history of psychosis, after meditation…”

“Meditation has been gaining popularity as a psychotherapeutic intervention (Frith, Stevens, Johnstone & Crow, 1979). However adverse effects of meditation have also been reported, viz. depersonalization, altered reality testing, and the appearance of previously repressed, highly changed memories and conflicts (Glueck & Stroebel, 1976 ; Kennedy, 1976). Similar responses were reported in a single subject several weeks after initiation into Transcendental Meditation (French, Schmid & Ingalls, 1975). Another report described how acute psychotic episodes were precipitated by intensive meditation in patients with a history of schizophrenia (Lazarus, 1976). A subsequent study attempted to analyze the correlation between contemplation and psychosis (Chan-Ob & Boonyanaruthee, 1999). Observations were made in three patients who presented psychotic symptoms subsequent to practice of meditation. In two of them sleep loss following a “wrong doing” of meditation was found to be the main cause and drug withdrawal was the principal factor in the third case. Also, in the case of Qigong, a Chinese meditation, a series of psychological and physiological disturbances followed inappropriate training (Xu, 1994). Some patients experienced a range of physical and mental symptoms which came to be called “Qigong deviation syndrome” which disappeared after the exercise was stopped. In traditional yoga texts, it has been mentioned that “by a mistaken course of yoga the yogi brings upon himself all diseases” (Hatha Yoga Pradipika (2:16). Ayuktabhyasa yogena sarvaroga samudbhavaha. Vishnudevananda, 1999).”

Robin, Mel. (2002). Injuries incurred by improper yogasana practice. In Mel Robin, A Physiological Handbook for Teachers of Yogasana. Tucson, Ariz.: Fenestra Books, pp. 511-518.

Russell, W.R. (1972). Yoga and the vertebral arteries. British Medical Journal, 1:685.* [PubMed][Texte complet]

Shakti - kundalini yoga. John F Kennedy University. Fall 2006. Bibliographie d’un cours. [Texte complet]


Descamps, Marc-Alain. (2005). L’éveil de la kundalini. Éditions Alphée.

De Gracia. (2005). Do psychedelic drugs mimic awakened kundalini. [Texte complet]

Greyson, Bruce. (1993). The physio-kundalini syndrome and mental Illness. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 25(1). [Texte complet]

Greyson, Bruce. (2000). Some neuropsychological correlates of the physio-kundalini syndrome. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, Vol. 32(2): 123–134.

Hansen G. (1995). Schizophrenia or spiritual crisis? On « raising the kundalini » an its diagnostic classification, Weekly Journal of The Danish Medical Association, July. * [PubMed] [en Danois].
House, Richard (2001). Psychopathology, psychosis and the kundalini: postmodern perpectives on unusual subjective experience. Chapter 7 in Isabel Clarke (ed.) Psychosis and Spirituality Exploring the New Frontier, Whurr Publishers, London, 2001, pp. 107-25. [Texte complet]
Kason, Yvonne. (2000). Farther Shores: Exploring How Near-Death, Kundalini and Mystical Experiences Can Transform Ordinary Lives. Toronto: Harper Collins Publishers, Revised edition.
Le Fanu, J.A. (2002). A clutch of new syndromes ? Journal of the Royal Society of Medecine, 95: 118-125. [Texte complet]

Sannella, Lee. (1992). The Kundalini Experience: Psychosis or Transcendence? Lower Lake: Integral Publishing. [Texte complet]

Scotton, Bruce (1996) The phenomenology and treatment of kundalini. in Chinen, Scotton and Battista (Editors). Textbook of transpersonal psychiatry and psychology. (pp.261–270). New York: Basic Books, Inc. *
Sovatsky, Stuart (1998). Words from the Soul: Time, East/West Spirituality, and Psychotherapeutic Narrative. New York: State University of New York Press.*


Aetna InteliHealth

Potential Dangers

"Most types of meditation are believed to be safe in healthy individuals. However, the safety of meditation is not well studied. People with underlying psychiatric disorders should speak with a mental health provider before beginning meditation because there have been rare reports of mania or worsening of other symptoms. Some publications warn that intensive meditation can cause anxiety, depression or confusion, although this is not well studied.

Meditation should be used with caution in patients with underlying psychiatric conditions such as mood disorders, personality disorders, seizures, or psychotic conditions.

The use of meditation should not delay the time it takes to see a health care provider for diagnosis or treatment with more proven techniques or therapies. Meditation should not be used as the sole approach to illness."

Side effects. Site "Meditation research"

Bad Vibes. Warning : Meditating may be hazardous to your health. Cultic Studies Review Vol. 2, No. 1, 2003.

Meditation. Indiopedia.

Castillo, R.J. (1990). Depersonalization and Meditation. Psychiatry, 53: 158-168. [Extraits] [PubMed]

Castillo, R.J. (1991). Culture, Trance and Mental Illness: Divided Consciousness in South Asia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.*
Castillo, R.J. (1991). Divided consciousness and enlightenment in Hindu yogis. Anthropology of Counsciousness, 2(3-4): 1-6.*
Castillo, R.J. (1995). Culture, trance and the mind-brain. Anthropology of Conciousness, 6: 17-34.*
Castillo, R.J. (1997). Dissociation. In W. S. Tseng and J. Streltzer, eds., Culture and Psychopathology: A Guide to Clinical Assessment (pp. 101-23). Brunner/Mazel. *
Castillo, R.J. (2001). Lessons from folk healing practices. In W. S. Tseng and J. Streltzer, eds., Culture and Psychotherapy: A Guide to Clinical Practice (pp.81-101). American Psychiatric Press.*

Castillo R.J. (2003). Trance, functional psychosis and culture. Psychiatry. 66(1), 9–21. [PubMed] [Extraits]

Chan-Ob T, Boonyanaruthee V. (1999). Meditation in association with psychosis. Journal of Medical Association of Thailand, 82(9): 925–930. [PubMed]

Craven, J.L. (1989). Meditation and psychotherapy, Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 34: 648-653.

Deikman, Arthur J. (1963). Experimental meditation, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 136: 329-43.*

Deikman, Arthur J. (1966). Implications of experimentally induced contemplative meditation. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 142: 101-116. Also in Psychedelics. B. Aronson and H. Oamond (eds.) (New York: Doubleday) 1970, pp. 296-320.*

Epstein M.D., & Lieff J.D. (1981). Psychiatric complications of meditation practice. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 13(2): 137-47.

Fenwick, Peter. (1980). Can we still recommend meditation. British Medical Journal, 287, 1401, November 1983. [Texte complet]

Hansen W. (1980). Psychoses and meditation. Ugeskr Laeger, Dec 29;143(1): 20-22. [en Danois] * [PubMed] Hassett, J. (1978). Caution: Meditation can hurt. Psychology Today, November 125-126. *
Heide, F.J. & Borkovec, T.D. (1984). Relaxation-induced anxiety: Mechanism and theoretical implications. Behavioral Research Therapy, 22: 1-12.

Jaseja H. (2005). Meditation may predispose to epilepsy : an insight into alteration in brain environment induced by meditation. Med Hypotheses, 64(3): 464-7. [PubMed]

Kugler, J. (1972). Neurologische Storungen nach Yogaubungen. [Neurologic disorders following yoga exercises]. Med Klin. (West Germany), 15 Sep , 67(37): 1195. [In German.] * [PubMed]
Krisanaprakornkit, T., Sriraj, W., Piyavhatkul, N., Laopaiboon, M. (2009). (Meditation therapy for anxiety disorders (Review). The Cochrane Library, Issue 4.

Kuijpers, H.J.H, van der Heijden, F.M.M.A., Tuinier, S. & Verhoeven, W.M.A. (2007). Meditation-Induced Psychosis. Psychopathology, 40(6): 461-464. [Psychopathology]

Kutz, I., Burysenko, J.K. & Benson, H. (1985a). Meditation and psychotherapy: a rationale for the integration of dynamic psychotherapy, the relaxation response and mindfulness meditation, American Journal of Psychiatry, 142: 1-8.*

Lazarus, A.A. & Mayne, T.J. (1990). Relaxation: some limitations, side effects and proposed solutions. Psychotherapy, 27: 261-266.
Levinson, P. (1973). Religious delusions in counter-culture patients. Amer. J. Psychiatry, 130, 1265-69.*

Mangla, Divay. Meditation is not free from side-effects. Article available from Dr. Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, ICYER, *

Murphy, Michael, and Steven Donovan. (1997). Negative experiences. In Michael Murphy and Steven Donovan, The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Review of Contemporary Research with a Comprehensive Bibliography 1931-1996. 2d ed. Sausalito, Calif.: The Institute of Noetic Sciences, pp. 143-145 [Texte complet]

Perez-De-Albeniz, Alberto & Holmes, Jeremy. (2000). Meditation: Concepts, effects and uses in therapy. International Journal of Psychotherapy, March 2000, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p49, 10p. [Texte complet]

Persinger. M.A. (1992). Enhanced incidence of 'the sensed presence' in people who have learned to meditate: Support for the right hemispheric intrusion hypothesis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75: 1308-1310. * [PubMed]

Saraydarian, H. (1971). The dangers of meditation. In H. Saraydarian, The Science of Meditation. Agoura, Calif.: The Aquarian Educational Group, pp. 198-239. (On the wrong use of meditation.)

Sethi S., Bhargava. (2003). Relationship of meditation and psychosis: case studies. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 37(3): 382. [wkhealth]

Shapiro, Deane H., Jr. (1981). Adverse effects and contraindications. In the article by Deane H. Shapiro, Jr., “Overview: Clinical and physiological comparison of meditation with other selfcontrol strategies,” American Journal of Psychiatry, Mar, 139(3): 270-271.
Shapiro, Deane H., Jr. (1992). Adverse effects of meditation: A preliminary investigation of long-term meditators. International Journal of Psychosomatics, 39: 62-67.

Shapiro, Deane H., Jr. (2008). Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives. Aldine Transaction. (Amazoon)

Walsh R, Roche L. (1979). Precipitation of acute psychotic episodes by intensive meditation in individuals with a history of schizophrenia. American Psychiatry Association, August, 136(8): 1085-6. [PubMed]

West, MA. (1980). The psychosomatics of meditation, 24(5):265-73. [PubMed]

Transcendantal Meditation

TranceNet présente les résultats de diverses recherches.

Why I believe the transcendental meditation org is dangerous. Knapp Family Counseling.

Glueck, Bernard and Charles F. Stroebel. (1984). Meditation in the treatment of psychiatric illness. Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives (722 pages), edited by Deane Shapiro and Roger Walsh. New York: Alden Publications, p150.

Heide, Frederick J. and T.D. Borkovec. (1983). Relaxation-induced anxiety enhancement due to relaxation training. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, p171. *

Heide, Frederick J. and T.D. Borkovec. (1984)"Relaxation-induced anxiety: mechanism and theoretical implications." Behavioral Research Therapy, pp1-12. *

The Various Implications Arising from the Practice of Transcendental Meditation: An empirical analysis of pathogenic structures as an aid in counseling. Bensheim, Germany: (Institut fur Jugend Und Gesellschaft, Ernst-Ludwig-Strasse 45, 6140.) Institute for Youth and Society, 1980 (188 p.). [Full text] [Resume]
French, Alfred, P., Schmid, A.C. & Ingalls, E. (1975). Transcendental Meditation, Altered Reality Testing, and Behavioral Change: A Case Report. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 161 (1): 55-58. [PubMed]

Lansky EP, St Louis EK. (2006). Transcendental meditation: a double-edged sword in epilepsy? Epilepsy Behav. Nov;9(3):394-400.
Lazarus, A.A. (1976). Psychiatric Problems Precipitated by Transcendental Meditation. Psychological Reports, 39, 601-602. [PubMed]
Lazarus, Arnold A. (1984). Meditation: the problems of any unimodal technique. Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives (722 pages). Edited by Deane Shapiro and Roger Walsh. New York: Aldin Publications, p691. *

Lansky EP & St Louis EK. (2006). Transcendental meditation: A double-edged sword in epilepsy? Epilepsy & Behavior. Nov;9(3):394-400.
Otis, L.S. (1974). The facts on Transcendantale Meditation: Part III. If well-integrated but anxious, try TM. Psychology Today, 45-46, April.

Otis. L.S. (1984). Adverse Effects of Transcendental Meditation, in D. Shapiro and R. Walsh (eds.), Meditation: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives (New York: Alden). [Article]

Persinger, Michael A, Norman J. Carrey and Lynn A. Suess. (1980). TM and Cult Mania (198 pages). North Quincy, Massachusetts: Christopher Publishing House.*

Persinger, Michael A. (1992). Enhanced incidence of 'the sensed presence' in people who have learned to meditate; support for the right hemispheric intrusion hypothesis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 75: 1308-1310. *

Persinger, M.A. (1993). Transcendental Meditation and general meditation are associated with enhanced complex partial epileptic-like signs: evidence for 'cognitive' kindling? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 76: 80-82.* [Extraits] []

Qi gong

Qi gong psychotic reaction. DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Association. Masson, Paris, 2003, ISBN : 2-294-00663-1.

Qigong deviation syndrome. CCTM-2. DSM.

Aetna InteliHealth

Potential Dangers

Qi Gong is generally believed to be to be safe in most people when practiced according to standard moderate principles and when learned under the guidance of a qualified teacher. Unguided exercises may worsen symptoms in some patients with psychiatric disorders. There is one report of an allergic skin reaction in Qi Gong trainees, although the exact cause is not clear. Qi Gong should not be used as the sole treatment for severe illnesses in place of more proven therapies. Use of Qi Gong should not delay consultation with a qualified health care provider for such conditions.

Beng-Yeong, Ng. (1999). Qigong-induced mental disorders: a review. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33 (2), 197–206.* []

Chan HH, Yan HJ, Xu SH, Zhang MD, Fan B. (1992). A controlled comparaison of hysteria-like episodes induced by Qigong and hysteria with psychosocial stress. Chinese Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 18: 156-158 (in Chinese).*
Huang BY, Liu ZS. (1990). Huan BY, Liu ZS. A report of ten cases of Qigong induced mental disorders. Chinese Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 16:245-246 (in Chinese).*

Kuo T-C., Ho F-M. & Lin W. (2003). Physiological Changes Associated with Neiyang Qigong. Journal of Health Science, 49(4), 278-284 *

Lee, S. & Yu, H. (1995). The evaluation of qigong induced mental disorder as a Chinese culture-bound syndrome (in Chinese). Archives of Psychiatry, 4, 222-225. (in Chinese).*
Lee, S. (2001). Who is politicising psychiatry in China? The British Journal of psychiatry. Department of Psychiatry, II/F, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong. []

Lim, Russell F. & Lin Keh-Ming. (1996). Cultural formulation of psychiatric diagnosis: Case No. 03: Psychosis following qi-gong in a Chinese immigrant. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 20:369-378. [PubMed]

Peng HK. (1997). Prevention of Qigong deviations. Chinese Qigong, 3:36 (in Chinese).*
Shan. HH Dr. (2000). Culture-bound psychiatric disorders associated with qigong practice in China. Hong Kong J Psychiatry, 10(3):12-14). [Article] [Cases]

Qian ZQ, (1995). Treatment and prevention of Qigong deviations. Shanghai: Bai-jia Press (in Chinese).*
Shan HH, Yan HJ, Xu SH et al. (1987). Clinical phenomenology of mental disorders caused by Qigong exercise. Chinese Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 13:266-269.
Shenghan, Xu. (1994). Psychophysiological reactions associated with qigong therapy. Shanghai Mental Health Center, Psychiatric Department, Shanghai Medical University, Fall. [Texte complet] [PubMed] [Comment 1] [Comment 2]

Tian T. (1996). An understanding of hallucinations experienced during Qigong practice. Qigong and sports, 12:18-20 (in Chinese).* Wang P. (1994). Qigong induced manic state. Journal of Clinical Psychological Medecine, 4:239 (in Chinese).*
Wang Y. Jia SB (1996). Clinical Research on Qigong deviations. Chinese Qigong, 12: 42-43 (in Chinese).*
Wei-Chin Hwang. (2007). Qi-gong psychotic reaction in a chinese American woman. Department of Psychology, Claremont McKenna College, 850 Columbia Avenue, Claremont, CA 91711, USA. 12 October. (Extrait)
Wu Caiyun. (1991). A Clinical Analysis of 76 Cases of Qigong-induced Mental Disorder Characterized Mainly by Hallucination and Delusion. Journal of Clinical Psychological Medicine, 2:7. *
Wu CY. (1992). A clinical analysis of seventy six cases of Qigong induced psychotic disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychological Medecine, 2:7-9 (in Chinese).*
Wu CY. (1993). An inquiry into the etiology of Qi gong induced mental disorders and a follow-up study of fifty three cases, Journal of Clinical Psychological Medecine, 3:132-133 (in Chinese).*

Xia SJ, Lin YG. (1996). Personality profiles and EEG characteristics of patients with Qigong deviations. Chinese Qigong, 2:17-19 (in Chinese).*

Zhai ST. (1995). Qigong deviations resulting in mental disorders. In Shen YC, eds Textbook of psychiatry. Beijing: Publishing House of People’s Health (in Chinese).*
Zhang TL, Xu HT. (1997). Correcting deviations from the path of Qigong. Beijing: Publishing House of People’s Health (in Chinese).*

Spiritual crisis

DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Association. Masson, Paris, 2003, ISBN : 2-294-00663-1. Z71.8 (V62.89) Religious and spiritual problem. p. 853. p. 311

Rekab, Stephen (2007). Spiritual Emergence and possible emergencies. The Station Network. 01-03-07. [Texte complet]

Grof, Christina & Stanislav Grof. (1990).

The Stormy Search for the Self: A Guide to Personal Growth Through Transformational Crisis. Los Angeles: Jeremy Tarcher. []

Grof, Stanislav & Grof, Christina (eds) (1989). Spiritual Emergency : (New Conciousness Reader), Los Angeles : J.P. Tarcher. []

Crowley, Nicki Dr. (2005). Psychosis or spiritual Emergence ? Consideration of the Transpersonal perspective within psychiatry.
Newsletters juin 2006.
Meeting mars 31th 2006. [Texte complet]

Lukoff, David Ph. D. Spiritual Competency Resource Center.
Lesson 3.1 Spiritual Emergence.
Lesson 3.5 Meditation and Spiritual Practices

Mental Health Matters: Spirituality. Vidéo (voir à 8 min. 15.) Entretien avec Dr. David Lukoff un psychologue, un professeur de psychologie et un des experts en spiritualité et santé mentale, 16 avril 2008.
Lukoff, David. (2005). Spirituality and recovery. December 6. [Texte complet]
Lukoff, David, Lu Francis G. & Turner, Robert P. (1998). From spiritual emergency to spiritual problem: The transpersonal roots of the new DSM-IV category. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 38(2), 21-50. [Texte complet]
Randal, Patte and Argyle, Nick. (2005). ‘‘Spiritual Emergency’ – a useful explanatory model?’ A Literature Review and Discussion paper. [Texte complet]
Turner, R.P., Lukoff, D., Robert P., Barnhhouse, R.T. & Lu, F.G. (1995). Religious or spiritual problem. A culturally sensitive diagnostic category in the DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, July ;183(7) : 435-44. [PubMed]


Aetna InteliHealth.

Potential Dangers

"Reiki is not recommended as the sole treatment for potentially serious medical conditions, and its use should not delay the time it takes to consult with a health care provider or receive established therapies. Serious adverse effects have not been reported in association with Reiki. Some Reiki practitioners believe that Reiki should be used cautiously in individuals with psychiatric illnesses."

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